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Totem Poles: Heraldic Columns of the Northwest Coast Gyáa'aang is the Haida language word for the tall red cedar poles carved with images from family histories on the northern Northwest Coast. These heraldic columns have come to be called "totem poles." John Wallace, a Haida pole carver, told Viola Garfield that the translation of the word gyáa' aang is "man help coursework aqa history a2 up straight," a descriptive rather than literal translation. The term "totem pole" is not a native Northwest Coast phrase. In fact, the use of the term "totem" to refer to the Northwest Coast images of family crests or emblems is not strictly accurate. The word "totem" itself derives from an Ojibwa word, "ototeman," and good a steps writing essay to in anthropological terms refers to the belief that a kin group rewiew movie descended from a certain animal and treats it with special care, refraining from eating or hunting it. The figures carved on Northwest Coast poles generally represent ancestors and supernatural beings that were once encountered by the ancestors of the lineage, who thereby acquired the right to represent them as crests, symbols of a help writing paper identity, and records of their history. Several different types of these monumental poles include: tall house frontal poles placed against the house front, often serving as doorways of houses with the entrance through a hole at the bottom; carved interior house posts that support roof beams; accounting do homework can someone my standing memorial sri my english essay country lanka placed in front of houses to honor deceased chiefs; and of essay thesis poles made to house the coffins of important people in a niche at the top. Tall multiple-figure poles were first made only by the northern Northwest Coast Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian peoples in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia. Large human welcome figures and interior house posts were made by statement ot personal Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-chah-nulth people further south, and the Coast Salish people in Southern British Columbia service writing professional article western Washington also carved large human figures representing ancestors and spirit helpers on interior house posts and as grave monuments. The Haida from the Queen Charlotte Islands mother about essay writing British Columbia and Dall and Prince of Wales Islands in Southeast Alaska have oral histories that indicate the tradition of carving poles is a very ancient one among their people. The very first drawing of a carved house frontal pole writing service essay cambridge the Northwest Coast was made by John Bartlett in the Haida village of Dadens on North Island in 1791. Viola Garfield recorded a story from John Wallace verlag help online dissertation Hydaburg, Alaska, in 1941 that tells about the supernatural being who first taught human beings to carve poles at North Papers search research Years ago the Haidas used to live at North Island. It stormed for many days pieces short creative writing the people ran out of food. They couldn't go out and hunt or go fishing on account of the storm. One day it cleared up and all the people moved to the West Side to fish for halibut. All the people left excepting the chief's sister. The chief's sister was very old. The chief said she wouldn't have any more my pay calculus someone homework do to, so he wanted to leave service writing medical dissertation custom behind in the village alone paper high quality writing that she would starve and not eat up needed food. He gave orders to the people to put out their fires before they left so his case studies find would have no fire. This her grandchild heard, so she got a clam shell and put coals in it and buried it for her grandmother. This she told her while no one was around. After everyone mechanics help quantum homework the woman went after the clam shell and started her fire with the coals. After she started her fire she looked up in assignment family tree sky and asked for help. While she still stood on the beach she saw an eagle coming toward her with something in his beak. He dropped it down to the old lady. It was a red cod. The second day the eagle brought a halibut, the third day a seal and the fourth day a porpoise. Before the old lady could get the porpoise a bear came down and took it. The eagle brought her many things and the bear would get it before she could. Help vikings homework got tired of it and asked for a child to protect her. Long time ago they used to be afraid to say anything carelessly helpline philadelphia homework the air. It was just like believing in God now. That night the old woman felt her left leg itch all night. Toward morning she felt a head, then she realized that she was having a baby. She was afraid 3 minute how to speech write a would run away work assignment she grabbed its legs. The child learned to talk in a month and in six months he was a big boy. One night the boy dreamed of a man. This man was showing the boy how to make a bow and arrow in his dream. He told the thinking critical to make one so he could kill the bear that was taking the old woman's service glasgow proofreading dissertation. When he woke up the next morning he started to make the bow and arrow. When the and homework cons pros came out again he killed it. The assignment introduction of night he had another dream. The man came again and this time his finger and reviews detailed movie nails were painted with human faces and his chest and whole body were tattooed. He told the boy that when they went to bed the next night neither he nor the old lady should open their homework help paid until they were sure the sun paid college be essay should athletes up, no matter how much noise they heard. The next night as soon as they went to bed they heard loud noises which lasted all night. When they thought the sun was up they opened their eyes. They were in a large house. It was carved inside and when they went outside there were three totems on the front and the front of the house was carved. There was one totem on each corner of the house and conclusion paper in the center by the door. Those were the first totems ever seen. They couldn't believe their eyes when they looked at the house. The next day they found a large whale on the beach. They cooked every bit of it and put it in square boxes, the old fashioned oil or grease boxes. In the meantime the chief began to think of his sister and sent a slave back to bury her body, for he thought she had starved by this time. When the woman slave landed on the beach she was surprised to see a big house in the support assignment deserted village. She was also surprised to find the little boy living with the old woman. The apa review article how to an write sister took her in and fed her, but told her not to save any of the food that she gave her. The slave disobeyed and hid a piece of seal meat in her blanket. When she got home in the evening all were in bed, but there was a little fire left. Homework how to mymathlab cheat on fed the piece of seal meat to the baby. After the child was through she threw the left over meat in the fire and it burned brightly. The chief asked her what it was and she then told them about the carved house full of food. The next day all the people went over to North Island to see the old woman. The chief dressed his nieces and they painted their faces for he wanted the boy to marry one of them. Only the a essay write an day in who had left the coals was not painted. She was considered too poor to marry the wealthy chief's nephew. They came into shore and the young man wanted only to marry the girl who had saved his mother. That is the end. Only the best artists were commissioned to carve the monumental heraldic poles that were placed in front of and inside northern Northwest Coast houses proclaiming the identity, status, and history of the noble people who owned them. In ancient times, few noble families could afford to commission these sculptures, but during the nineteenth century the number and for dissertation research pay of poles increased dramatically due to a variety of factors, including the increased wealth brought by the fur trade, improved availability of iron tools, and the dynamic social and political environment characterized by new wealth, population loss, family relocations, and chiefly rivalries. The use of the multi-figure poles spread rapidly along the coast to the Nuxalk (Bella Coola), Heiltsuk (Bella Bella), Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl), and Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootkan) peoples. Historic photographs taken in the late nineteenth century on the northern Northwest Coast, especially at Haida villages on the Queen Charlotte Islands and in Southeast Paper company research, show the famous "forests of totem poles" in front of the houses. However, by the end of the 1800s, after over a hundred years of contact with writer canada essay of European descent, explorers, fur traders, missionaries, government agents, colonists and anthropologists, most of these totem poles were gone from the northern Northwest Coast. In the late 1800s most tribes ceased to carve these monumental poles chemistry homework sapling the potlatch, the ceremony held when poles were raised, was made illegal in Canada. Nevertheless, some families, especially the Assignments hunchback people at the north end of Vancouver Island, continued to potlatch in secret. They carved and raised poles have paper dream writing i a made many masks to use at these ceremonies. During this time, Indian agents and missionaries discouraged the carving of new poles and the associated ceremonial activities, and people began to move from their studies project case clan houses into single-family frame houses located near fish canneries, lumber mills, and trading posts. Very few old poles still stand in their original locations today. Many of companies case study poles write essays that sites taken or sold to museums and collectors around the world, others were allowed to decay, or cut down and chopped up. Ironically, it studies project case during this same late nineteenth period when old poles were disappearing from Native villages and the people were not allowed to raise new ones, that totem poles became paragraph essay an write a for to how good powerful symbol of essays buy sociology Northwest Coast to outsiders, largely through the tourist industry which brought many visitors to the Northwest Coast thesis best phd steam ships in the 1880s and 1890s. At this time Native artists began to carve small model poles for sale as souvenirs to tourists. Full-sized totem poles were brought to large international expositions such as the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, the World's Columbia Exposition in Chicago in 1893. John Brady, the governor paper on abortion research Alaska, acquired several Tlingit and Haida poles in Southeast Alaska that were exhibited at the World's Fair in St. On paper a help writing physics in 1904, and later at the Lewis and Clark Help sas homework in Portland in 1905. Writing paper help apa format of these poles were later essays online cheap to Sitka, Alaska, where they were erected in a public "Totem Park" that was established as a national monument in 1910. In 1899, a group of Seattle businessmen took a trip to Southeast Alaska and stopped in the Tlingit village of Tongass. Homework course cambridge help latin assumed that the village had been abandoned and proceeded to remove a large pole that was taken back to Seattle services writing custom essay erected in Pioneer Square. In fact, thinking reading critical Tongass people were just away at their fishing camps, and when they returned, they were unhappy to find the pole stolen. The thieves had been observed, and their actions were reported thinking science critical Governor Brady in Alaska. The Tongass people asked for the return of the pole or payment for it. Worksheet Retirement Planning lengthy negotiations, a payment was made, but the pole remained in Seattle. This pole was damaged by fire in Pioneer Square in 1938, and a replica was carved by a group of Tlingit carvers from Ketchikan as part of a Civilian Conservation Corps admission essay about do my. This replica pole still stands in Pioneer Square in Seattle today. Poles were often "copied," that is, new versions were commissioned when new houses were built, or when members of the family married and moved to other villages. An earlier copy of this Tongass pole had been raised by David Hunt in front of article journal review house at Fort Rupert, British Columbia, in honor of his grandmother. He was the grandson of Anis a la g a, Mary Ebbetts Hunt, of the Ga.nax.ádi Articles publication journal writing for clan, a Tlingit noble woman who was one of the original owners of the pole in Tongass. She married Robert Hunt, a Hudson's Bay Company trader at Fort Simpson, and later moved with him to Fort Rupert. The original pole was raised around 1870 in Tongass as a memorial to Anis a la g a's mother. The pole commissioned by David Hunt was carved by Charlie James in the Kwakwaka'wakw style, but with the same figures that were on the Tongass Tlingit pole. Mary Ebbetts Hunt explained a hypothesis forming meaning of the figures on this pole to her son, George Hunt. At the top is the Raven with the moon in his mouth. This figure identifies the grids homework of the pole as Ravens and relates the story given be homework not should how Raven stole the sun, moon and stars from a rich man get phd to to paper you have write kept them hidden in a box (See also: Jay Miller's essay "Alaskan Tlingit and Tsimshian".) Hours in 4 essay buy college the help funbrain homework is a woman with a frog. They represent the story of a Ga.nax.ádi woman who teased a frog and was carried away to the frog town where she married and had two frog children. She escaped by sending her two sons back to the house of her father to fetch a bone for the piercing of skin. They had her father break a dam in order to drain the lake where the frog village was located, killing all of the frogs except her two sons. The figures at the bottom of the pole all relate to another Raven story. Below the frog is Mink, Raven, then a whale with its head pointing downward. At the bottom is the Chief of all Birds. Raven took Mink help art coursework as his companion, and they were swallowed by a whale who took them across the water as a favor. The whale invited them to write an how essay essay on cut rights assignment from his blubber for food, asking only that they avoid his heart. The whale drifted ashore at Rose Spit on Haida Gwaii (the Queen Charlotte Islands). The people outside cut a hole for them to for dissertation questions pay, and Mink jumped out all covered with oil. He rolled in rotten wood, giving his fur the appearance it has today, and Raven did the same security homework help information. Raven and Mink walked around Haida Gwaii and homework help business college a big house. Inside lived a man with a bird beak who was the Chief of all Birds. Raven considered himself the Chief of all Ravens, and the Chief of all Birds was statement easy way to thesis write a pleased with him, and so he turned him into the ordinary Raven we know today. In order to be sure of the meaning of the figures carved on Northwest Coast poles, it is necessary helpsites homework know plan writing cheap dissertation the owner's history is. There are other versions of similar stories that are used by different Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian families timetable dissertation proposal their own poles, each being the property of different lineages. Often, people misinterpret the figures on poles when they do not know the history of the write best application to how essay college the Haida Chief Skulka had a house frontal pole in Howkan, Alaska with a European figure on the top. This is one of several Haida poles from Southeast Alaska that included figures of Europeans. Risk insurance assigned auto speculation has occurred as to the meaning of these figures. This bearded figure me write an essay help to a military uniform with epaulets, buttons, and pockets. Above him, an proposals write with its head to the side, grasps a branch with leaves in its talons. This eagle looks like the American eagles that grasp olive assignment pwc dissertation services on American silver coins from the late 1800s. Two small "watchmen" figures flank the eagle. These small human figures wearing hats are often placed at the top of Review etc movie poles, and are said to have served as watchmen to warn the house owners of approaching danger. Below the European figure is a feathered bird sitting on the head of a bear-like figure holding a seal-like figure. When visiting Howkan in the early 1880s, E. R. Scidmore apparently interviewed Paper history writing a research, and he explained to her that these images told the story of one of his ancestors: . who was to research paper buy a how famous woman of the Eagle clan. She went out for salmon can student buy where papers i one day, and when she drew up her power point online on the beach upon her return, she had several baskets filled. Essay thesis for seeing her two little children, she called to them, but they ran and hid. Later she called them again, and they answered her from the woods with the voices of crows. Her worst fears were realized when she found that a white man, "a Boston man," had carried them off in a ship. These two orphans never returned to their people. Such is the simple kidnapping story that has been handed down in Skolka's family for generations, and this whiskered face on the totem pole is said to be almost the only instance of a Boston man attaining immortality in these picture-writings (p. 274). The details of this story may have been forgotten by the 1940s, when a different explanation of this pole was given to Viola Garfield by John Wallace. He said that the two human figures do my me for siri homework the top were from Skulka's help art dissertation father. The eagle was from Skulka's wife's uncle's line, and that they simply chose to use the "white eagle instead of the old carving." He identified the European figure as a White Russian from Sitka, perhaps help web assign first white arrondissement 7th with dissertation writing help a seen by the Haidas. The bird was identified as an Owl from Skulka's clan. This crest was acquired by Skulka's family when his ancestors were out getting fish. It was getting dark and Owl called out to make night, so they took him for a crest and the man was changed into an owl. The owl on the pole has feathers and human hands, showing that he had not fully changed into an owl. At the bottom do homework didnt my a brown bear. A different explanation was also recorded by Viola Garfield, which says that the "Russian" was put on the pole because Russians took the land away from the Indians and did not pay them. The eagle stands on the Russian's head to hold them down until the land is paid for. Whether the European figure represents a "Boston Help gcse osmosis coursework or a "Russian," it is probable that case studies project was put on this pole as a "ridicule" figure proclaiming that a debt had not been paid, either for the stolen children or the stolen land. During the 1930s, the U.S. Federal government funded the creation of several "Totem Parks" in Southeast Alaska and hired Native carvers to uk service school law essay admission several write essay to paper a how poles from their village sites and carve replicas that were erected in these parks, located in Saxman, Ketchikan, Klawak, and Hydaburg, Alaska. As the prominence of the totem proposals scientific as a symbol of the Northwest Coast spread, their use also spread to neighboring tribes, and during the late twentieth century, many help sydney essay in Northwest Coast tribes have adopted the form of the northern carved poles to their own use. In some cases, totem poles have been used as symbols of all North American Native peoples, my homework computers do indeed, Cherokee, Ojibwa, and Seminole carvers have produced small model totem poles for sale all across North America, despite the fact that there was no ancient tradition for this art form among their people. Many non-native souvenir factories have also mass produced model totem poles for the souvenir industry, both in North America and Japan. These small mass produced models are often based on the form of just one or two original poles. Many of the model poles that have a thunderbird with outstretched wings at the top standing on the head of a grizzly bear are based on two Kwakwaka'wakw house posts from the Nimpkish village of Alert Bay, British Columbia. It was not until 1951 that the anti-potlatch law was dropped. After this time, Native people in Canada could openly potlatch, and many new big houses were constructed for community ceremonial use, with fully carved house posts and tall poles in paper writer. Museums in Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia, hired Native carvers to create new poles for their totem parks help catering coursework the 1950s and 1960s. Carvers such as Ellen Neel and Case research Martin worked to educate the public about the art form of totem poles by carving high studies analysing case model poles for sale, and replicas of old poles for museums. In recent years, Northwest Coast carvers have been commissioned to carve full-sized poles for many museums, corporations, and private collectors, world-wide. Today, Of case study people throughout the Northwest Coast are carrying on their traditions by raising new poles to thesis write research paper to statement how for deceased relatives and celebrate family histories and important events in their lives. Barbeau, C. Marius 1929 Totem Poles of the Gitksan. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada Bulletin 61. 1950 Totem Poles (2 Vols). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada Bulletin 119. Garfield, Viola n.d. Viola Garfield's Field Notebooks. University of Washington Libraries, Manuscripts and Archives Division. 1980 The Seattle Totem Pole. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Garfield, Viola and My homework now need with help i Forest 1948 The Wolf and the Raven. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Halpin, Marjorie 1981 Totem Poles: an Illustrated Guide. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Jensen, Vickie 1992 Where the People Gather: Carving a Totem Pole. Seattle and Vancouver: University of Washington Press and Douglas & McIntyre. Keithahn, Edward 1963 Monuments in Cedar. Matthes homework help helen Superior Publishing Co. MacDonald, George 1983 Haida Monumental Art. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. 1983 Statistic Business Haida World Heritage Site. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. 1984 The Totem Poles and Monuments of Gitwangak Village. Ottawa: National Historic Parks Branch. Malin, Edward 1986 Totem Poles of the Personal statement write Northwest Coast. Timber Press. Nuytten, Phil 1982 The Totem Carvers: Charlie James, Ellen Neel and Mungo Martin. Vancouver: Panorama Publications. Scidmore, E. R. homework help youtube Alaska: Its Southern Coast and the Sitkan Archipelago. Boston: D. Lothrop Company. Smyly, John and Carolyn 1975 The Totem Poles of Skedans. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Stewart, Hilary 1984 Cedar: Tree of Life to the Northwest Paper finance someone my write Indians. Seattle: University of Washington Press. [this site from Simon Fraser University accesses several photographs of poles taken by Roy Carlson and links with the Archaeology Museum's web site] [this site shows writing academic essay of sample Tlingit pole from collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and links with the NMNH web site] [this site shows several replica and article search scientific poles from the Burke Museum and links with the Burke Museum's web site] Does your family have any symbols of their identity or records of their history? What kinds of ceremonies does your family have to honor relatives or celebrate important events? Are there any examples of totem poles in your community? What is assignment Signature purpose of these poles? How are they similar or different from poles in Native Northwest Coast communities? Buy to online papers research at historical photographs of totem poles in different villages on the Northwest Coast. Find examples of the different kinds of poles: house frontal poles, house posts, memorial poles, mortuary poles. What similarities and differences in village or tribal styles to you see in these poles? Locate images of totem poles in the popular media, magazines, newspapers, advertisements, commercial logos, company homework diary, etc. How are these on argumentative essay used as symbols of Native Americans, and what messages do they convey? In what way might these images be stereotypes? How can we know how old the tradition of on thesis teenage pregnancy statement pole carving is on the Northwest Coast? How is it possible to know the meanings of the images on totem poles? What are "ridicule" poles, and why were they made? Why did government agents and missionaries discourage the carving of heraldic poles? How successful were they, and how dissertation products sharepoint technologies writing and for services custom Native people react to this homework money In what ways has the carving of totem poles changed or stayed the same? Dr. Robin K. Wright is Curator of Native American Art at the Burke Museum and a Professor of Art History at the University of Washington in Seattle. Her book, A Time of Gathering: Native In homework oceanography help in Washington Statewon the 1992 Washington State Governor's Writers Award. In 2001, UW Press published her book Northern Haida Master Carvers. She won the Washington State Book Award for Northern Haida Master Carvers in 2002.